English From The Beginning – Transcript Lesson Two

Hi! Welcome back to Cup of English.

This is English – From The Beginning. In Lesson One we learnt:

I am Sarah.

You are here.

He is British. She is 13. It is white. We are family, and They are girls.

We also learnt that the letters SH make…,

like BritiSH, but also SHe.

We also learnt that the letters TH make…,

like thirteen.

This is the verb ‘to be’ and ‘to be’ is a very important verb.

This symbol is for verbs.

This symbol is for subjects.

So… I am Sarah.

(I am the subject.)

You are here.

(You are the subject.)

Only with the verb ‘to be’, we can have two of these.

This gives information about this.

(But only with the verb ‘to be’.)

Cup of English starts slowly and builds up, so let’s move on to Lesson Two…

 

Lesson Two is all about My Family.

Now you know that I am bad at art.

This is me.

I am Sarah.

This is my husband.

My husband is called Alex.

We are talking about my family and the verb ‘to be (called)’.

 

So… I am Sarah.

I am called Sarah.

I can say ‘I am Sarah’ and I can say ‘I am called Sarah.’

This is my husband.

His brother is called David.

His mother (his mum) is called Carol.

His father (his dad) is called Alan.

We can say ‘mother’ and we can say ‘father’, but I say ‘mum’ and ‘dad’.

So his mum is called Carol and his dad is called Alan.

His brother is called David.

His wife is called Sam.

Her husband is called David.

Her son is called Alex.

Their children are called Alfie and Ella.

Their son is called Alfie.

Their daughter is called Ella.

Our children are called Hannah, Eleanor and Rebecca.

 

So that’s my husband’s side of the family.

On my side of the family, I have my brother and I have my mum.

(My dad is dead.)

My brother is called Christian.

My mum is called Margaret.

This side of the family is big.

My side of the family is small.

So on my list of seven subjects,

I have ‘my’, which comes from I.

I have ‘his’, which comes from he.

‘Her’ comes from she.

‘Our’ comes from we, and ‘their’ comes from they.

 

I am missing two things from my list.

I can say ‘I am called Sarah.’

I can also say ‘My name is Sarah.’

What is YOUR name?

So the subject ‘you’ becomes YOUR…

What is your name?

And the subject ‘it’ becomes ITS…

Its lid is here

 

So let’s go back through the people in my family….

We have my mum… my dad…

We have my brother…his sister… their son… our daughter…

my husband and his wife.

 

If we have the letters ER at the end of a word, we say:

brother…sister…daughter.

 

If we have the letters CH at the beginning of a word, we say …

Children.

‘Children’ is for two or more.

Our child is called Eleanor.

One child / two children.

 

Let me introduce some characters…

I…You…He…She…It…We…They

These characters are all for the ‘subject’.

(This is not a channel for children.)

These characters help me teach you about English grammar.

 

If I have the sentence: My sister is called Hannah.

My sister is SHE…

She is called Hannah.

She is called Hannah.

 

If I have the sentence: My sisters are called Eleanor and Hannah.

My sisters are THEY.

They are called Eleanor and Hannah.

This is really important.

‘My’ is from I, but ‘sister’ is a SHE

– it is one person.

‘Sisters’ is two people and then we say: THEY…

They are called Eleanor and Hannah.

Also our son…

‘Our’ comes from the subject we.

We is for two or more people, but ‘son’ is one person, so

Our son is called Alex,

whereas Our sons…

‘Sons’ is two or more…

Our sons… THEY.

Our sons are called Alex and David.

 

With the sentence ‘He is called Alex’,

we ask the question by turning around the subject and the verb.

The verb is ‘IS’.

We say ‘is called’, but the verb is ‘IS’.

So we switch them around, and we say: Is he called Alex?

With the sentence

They are called Eleanor, Hannah and Rebecca,

we switch around the subject and the verb, and we get the sentence:

Are they called…?

Are they called Hannah, Eleanor and Rebecca?

That is how we ask a question – with the verb ‘to be (called)’.

(It’s like the verb ‘to be’, but we just add the word ‘called’.)

 

With the sentence:

‘She is called Margaret’,

if we want to make it negative, we just add ‘not’…

She is not called Margaret.

(We just add ‘not’ after the verb.)

Remember the verb is ‘IS’, so ‘called’ goes further along.

‘IS’ is the important part…

She is not called Margaret.

 

She’s not called Margaret.

You’re not called Bill.

I’m not called Sally.

(These contractions are from Lesson One.)

Don’t worry about contractions!

Most important is:

She is not called Margaret.

(Contractions can come later.)

 

I do not like words like this.

However you need them for school.

These words are what we call ‘Possessive Adjectives’.

My…Your…His…Her…Its… Our…Their.

 

Lastly, ‘they are girls’ becomes they’re girls.

This is not the same thing as ‘their girls’.

‘Their girls are 13’ does not mean ‘they are girls’.

(A lot of people make that mistake.)

 

Thanks for watching!

See you again for Lesson Three!

Bye for now!