Transcript Lesson Six

Transcript Lesson Six

 

Hi! Welcome back to English From the Beginning!

This is Lesson Six.

In Lesson Four, we looked at numbers.

In Lesson Five, we looked at ordinal numbers,  like first second and third.

In Lesson Six, we are looking at numbers, because I can tell the time.

So let’s have a look at the hours on the clock…

 

Telling the Time – the hours

 

One o’clock

Two o’clock

Three o’clock

Four o’clock

Five o’clock

Six o’clock

Seven o’clock

Eight o’clock

Nine o’clock

Ten o’clock

Eleven o’clock

Twelve o’clock

We just put the number and then o’clock.)

If somebody asks the question:

What time is it?

We say: It is one o’clock.

(‘It is’ – and then the time.)

 

Telling the Time – past & to

 

It is five past one.

It is ten past one.

It is quarter past one.

(We do not say: It is fifteen past one. We say: It is quarter past one.)

It is twenty past one.

It is twenty-five past one.

It is half past one.

(We do not say: It is thirty past one. We say: It is half past one.)

It is twenty-five to one.

It is twenty to one.

It is quarter to two – not fifteen to two… It is quarter to two.

It is ten to two.

It is five to two.

It is two o’clock.

(We only say o’clock when we have the full hour.)

So, one o’clock.

Two o’clock

– but five past one, ten past two, etc.

So, between the HOUR – the O’CLOCK and HALF, we say ‘past’

and between HALF and the HOUR, we say ‘to’.

 

Pronunciation

 

When we see this word here… ‘half’, we see the L and we think … but it is half.

This word is quarter, like water…

K-water

Quarter…

It is quarter past one.

Q U is …

Quarter

Question

There are 60 minutes in one hour.

This word is ‘minutes’, not …

minutes (like minnits).

This word is ‘hour’,

Not H-our…hour.

We pronounce ‘hour like” ‘our dad’ or ‘our children’, but we spell it with an H…

One hour.

Our dad

Our children.

60 seconds is one minute.

Here we say minute. (like minnit)

We can also say minute (like my-nute), but ‘minute’ means ‘small’.

So, we can say: He is one minute boy. (He is one small boy.)

‘Minute’ (Iike my-nute) means ‘small’.

60 seconds is one minute.

English is tricky, but I am here to make it simple for you.

 

What time is it? (Examples)

 

What time is it?

It is ten past four.

It is twenty-five past six.

It is quarter to seven.

It is half past eleven.

It is ten to three.

It is quarter to two.

It is quarter past five.

It is ten past eight.

It is half past nine.

It is twenty to one.

It is twenty-five to twelve.

It is ten to nine.

It is twenty-five past three.

 

 

 

Of course we can also say: it is 10:10, or it is 11:25, or it is 12:15.)

Then we do say 15; we do not say 12 : quarter.

I sometimes say: Let’s have lunch at 1:30,

or I can say: Let’s have lunch at half past one.

In a train station, you might hear:

The 15:30 train to Manchester Piccadilly is late.

With transport, we use the digital clock more often than the analogue clock.

 

a.m. and p.m.

 

In English we use a.m. and p.m.

a.m. means ‘ante meridian’.

This is Latin and it means ‘before midday’.

So, from midnight – when I am asleep – to midday – which is lunchtime – is a.m., and from lunchtime until midnight – when I am asleep – is p.m.

We say a.m. and p.m. after the time.

So, if I say 1 a.m., then I am asleep, and if I say 1 p.m., I am having my lunch.

With a.m. and p.m., we do not say 12 o’clock a.m. and 12 o’clock p.m.

We just say 12 a.m. and 12 p.m.

 

The System

 

Right, so now I can say: it is five to one.

But let’s put it into a sentence…

It is five to one.

It is ten to two.

It is quarter to three.

We can have two subjects, because ‘is’ is from the verb ‘to be’, and with the verb to be, we can have two subjects.

 

Questions

 

If we want to make a question, then we switch the subject and the verb

– with the verb ‘to be’.

So, it is five to one becomes: Is it five to one?

Is it ten to two?

Is it quarter to three?

If the answer is ‘yes’, then I say: Yes, it is ten to two.

– or, even better: Yes, it is!

We do not need to say: ..ten to two;

we just say: Yes, it is!

 

Negatives

 

If the answer is ‘No’, then we say:

No, it is not!

 

 

 

Contractions

 

And, of course, ‘is’ and ‘not’ together make isn’t.

So, Is it ten to two?
No, it isn’t; it is quarter past two.

 

Let’s add the Direct Object

 

If we have ‘your mum’, ‘your mum’ does not change.

So, I can see you mum, or:

Your mum can see me.

‘I’ changes to ‘me’, but ‘your mum’ stays the same.

Only the pronouns change…

‘You’ does not change and ‘it’does not change.

So, we can say: It can see you, and:

You can see it.

‘You’ and ‘it’ do not change – with the subject and the direct object.

So, now let’s add a time…

He can see you at half past three.

You can see him at four o’clock.

I can say: I can see you at six o’clock.

Or I can say:  At six o’clock I can see you.

 

Questions

 

With a question – with the verb ‘can’

– we just switch around the subject and the verb…

Can he see you at half past three?

 

Negatives

 

You cannot see him at four o’clock.

But you can see him at 5 o’clock.

You can’t see him at 4 o’clock, but you can see him at 5 o’clock.

If we have the question: Can you see him at 4 o’clock?

We can say: No, you cannot see him at 4 o’clock.

Or we can just say: No, you cannot!

No you can’t, but you can’t see him at five.

 

At what time…?

 

‘At what time can we see them?’ is a beautiful English sentence,

but in English, we say: What time can we see them?

 

When…?

 

We can also say: When can we see them?

(But ‘at what time’ is more specific.)

 

When can we see them?

What time can we see them?

Or – beautiful English… At what time can we see them?

 

Pronunciation

 

These two words are quite odd…

We spell ‘what’ W H A T and we spell ‘when W H E N, but

I do not pronounce the H; I say: …(pronuncation)

Some people say: (pronuncation),

but I say ‘what’ and ‘when’ and that is quite normal.

What time can I see you?

When can I see you?

 

I or Me?

 

In Lesson One, I said: This is me!

But ‘me’ is a direct object; ‘me’ is not a subject.

Really, it should be: This is I!

But that is not normal.

That is not from the year 2020; that is from the year 1820.

(It is old-fashioned.)

In 2020, in normal English, we say: This is me!

We also say: This is him! This is her! This is us! And This is them!

 

Revision (Lesson Five)

 

In Lesson Five, we learnt about dates.

So, now we can say:

We can see you on the 15th of June, at 9 a.m.

and this is proper English!

Remember it is ON a DAY and AT a TIME.

I hope you’ve enjoyed today’s lesson.

See you next time for Lesson Seven, on days of the week – and

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transcript Lesson Five

Transcript: Lesson Five

 

Hi!

 

Welcome back to English From The Beginning!

This is Lesson Five.

Today it is my birthday.

I am 49 today.

In Lesson Four we looked at numbers and in Lesson Five we are looking at dates.

 

MONTHS

So today is the 20th of May.

May is the fifth month of the year…

January, February, March, April, May.

Let’s look at the 12 months of the year…

 

PRONUNCIATION

With the word Feb-r-u-ary… (it’s difficult to say), I do not pronounce the R;

I say Feb-u-ary. Simple!

 

ORDINAL NUMBERS

In Lesson Four we learnt our numbers.

My birthday is today.

My birthday is on the 20th of May.

The 20th is an ordinal number.

So let’s look at our ordinal numbers…

first…second…third…fourth…fifth…sixth…seventh…eighth…ninth…tenth…

eleventh…twelfth…thirteenth…fourteenth…fifteenth…sixteenth…

seventeenth…eighteenth…nineteenth

We have to remember: first second and third.

After that we just add -th to the number…

four-th… fifth… – ah… fifth, not fiveth.

So fourth… fifth… sixth…

Then we get to twenty.

We can’t say twentyth; we have to say twenti-eth.

(We put an E before TH.)

twenty-first…twenty-second…twenty-third.

Then we have twenty-fourth…twenty-fifth…twenty-sixth… twenty-seventh, etc

– until we have thirti-eth.

Thirty-first

Thirty-second

Thirty-third

– until we get to forti-eth… fiftieth… sixtieth… seventieth… eightieth… ninetieth…

and then we have: a hundredth.

(Then we just say –th at the end of a hundred.)

 

SPELLING

With the number 20…

20 ends with a Y.

When we say ‘twentieth’, we change the Y into an I and add -e-th…

…and the same goes for thirtieth… forti-eth… fiftieth… sixtieth… seventieth… eightieth, and ninetieth…

 

But after the 20th, we go back to 1st 2nd and 3rd.

So we have: 21st, 22nd, 23rd,and the same goes for:

31st, 32nd, 33rd

41st, 42nd, 43rd, etc

 

Remember from Lesson Four, we said: a hundred and one,

so the ordinal number is a hundred and first…

a hundred and second…

a hundred and third…

a hundred and fourth.

(We have to say ‘and’.)

 

Today is the 20th of May.

It is the 20th day of May.

There are 31 days in May and today is the 20th day of May.

We do not have to say ‘day’, but we do have to say ‘of’…

The 20th of May.

 

DATES

So let’s go through some dates…

My birthday is on the 20th of May.

My date of birth is the 20th of the fifth, 1971.

Alex’s birthday is on the 11th of June.

Alex’s date of birth is the 11th of the sixth, 1968.

Rebecca’s birthday is on the 13th of November.

Rebecca’s date of birth is the 13th of November, 1999.

Hannah’s birthday is on the fifth of April.

Hannah’s date of birth is the fifth of the fourth, 2006.

Eleanor’s birthday is on the 21st of August.

Eleanor’s date of birth is the 21st of the eighth, 2002.

David’s birthday is on the 24th of July,

and David’s date of birth is the 24th of the seventh, 1971.

Allen’s birthday is on the second of August,

and Allen’s date of birth is the second of the eighth, 1944.

 

YEARS

When we have a year, we say 19-71 or 19-48 or 19-82.

However if we have the years 2000 to 2009,

we say: two thousand and one,

two thousand and two,

two thousand and three…

because otherwise Hannah’s year of birth is 26.

Alfie’s year of birth is 2009, not 29

 

 

BIRTHDAYS

With birthdays we say:

My birthday is on the 20th of May.

With dates of birth we say:

My date of birth is: the 20th of May (or the 20th of the fifth), 1971.

 

THE SYSTEM

The system is very important.

The system makes English simple.

So with the sentence ‘It is my birthday today’,

‘today’ has a light blue card.

(This is blue. This is a light blue.)

Light blue shows the time; it shows WHEN we do something.

So it is my birthday today.

‘Today’ is the time.

The light blue card can also go… here.

We can put the ‘when card’ at the beginning of the sentence and we can say:

Today it is my birthday, or:

On the 20th of May it is my birthday.

 

QUESTIONS

To make the question, we turn around the subject and the verb.

So: It is your birthday today becomes: Is it your birthday today?

If we have a question,

we cannot put the ‘when card’ at the beginning of the sentence;

in a question, the ‘when card’ has to go at the end of the sentence…

Is it your birthday today?

Yes, it is!

 

NEGATIVES

We learnt in Lessons One, Two and Three that with the verb ‘to be’,

– ‘is’ is from ‘to be’, we put ‘not’ after the verb…

It is not my birthday today.

We can also say: It isn’t my birthday today.

Isn’t is a contraction – from ‘is’ and ‘not’.

Do not worry about contractions!

 

THE APOSTROPHE– It belongs to somebody

So I can say:

Today it is my birthday or:

Today it is your son’s birthday or:

Today it is his mum’s birthday or:

…her uncle’s birthday or:

…the girls’ aunt’s birthday.

This apostrophe means: it belongs to somebody

– like it is my birthday or:

it is the aunt’s birthday. (It belongs to the aunt.)

– and the aunt belongs to the girls.

 

So this means it belongs to us.

So the girls’ aunt’s birthday is: the birthday of the aunt of the girls.

(But in English we say: the girls’ aunt’s birthday.)

 

THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE

This is my birthday cake.

These are my birthday cards.

If I say ‘this’ and ‘these’, I am talking about HERE.

If I am talking about THERE, then I say:

THAT is my birthday cake, and

THOSE are my birthday cards.

This, these…

That – for one person or thing and

Those – for two or more people or things.

This These That Those

 

Remember we say:

this these that those and there.

(You can see more of my tongue) – as opposed to:

three thirteen thirteenth thirty.

this these that those there.

 

It is a beautiful sunny day today – blue sky and lots of sun.

(I hope the lighting was okay on the film.)

I look forward to seeing you again for Lesson Six,

when we look at telling the time.

Now it is time for cake!

 

Thanks for watching!

Bye for now!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English From The Beginning – Transcript 4

Transcript Lesson 4

 

Hi!

Welcome back to English From The Beginning.

This is Lesson 4.

Every lesson we learn something new.

This is Lesson 4, but we have to remember lessons 1, 2 & 3.

My Name Is…

So… This is our daughter, Hannah.

She is called Hannah.

(She’s called Hannah.)

We can also say: Her name is Hannah.

So… My name is Sarah.

My husband’s name is Alex.

My brother-in-law’s name is David.

My mum’s name is Margaret.

We can say: My mum is called Margaret and

we can say: My mum’s name is Margaret.

So we have one or two or three options.

This is my daughter, Hannah.

This is my daughter; she is called Hannah, (or she’s called Hannah.)

This is my daughter; her name is Hannah.

In Lesson 1, we talked about the verb ‘to be’.

In Lesson 2, we talked about ‘to be called’.

In Lesson 3, we talked about ‘can’, and we said: I can spell,

and in Lesson 4, we are going to learn our numbers, because I can count.

 

These are the numbers 1 to 19:

one…two…three…four… five…six…seven…eight… nine…ten…eleven…twelve… thirteen…fourteen…fifteen…sixteen… seventeen…eighteen…nineteen.

With the numbers 13 to 19, we just put ‘teen’ after the number.

However it is THIRteen and not three-teen, and FIFteen, not five-teen.

 

Pronunciation

In English there are two TH sounds.

The first one is from ‘this’ and ‘these’…

We put our tongue between our teeth… this… this… these…these

and the second one we put our tongue between our teeth…three…three.

(So with ‘three’, you see a little bit on my tongue and with ‘this’ you see more…this…these – we see more of my tongue.)

 

three…thirteen…this..these

If you can say the TH-sound, your English sounds good.

Let’s go through the numbers again…

one…two…three…four… five…six…seven…eight… nine…ten…eleven…twelve… thirteen…fourteen…fifteen…sixteen… seventeen…eighteen…nineteen.

Those are the most important numbers.

 

Now we need the number twenty… thirty…forty…fifty – so again we do not say five-ty, we say FIFty…sixty…seventy…eighty…ninety… and then we have ‘a hundred’.

We can either say ‘a hundred’, or we can say ‘one hundred’.

Most of the time we say ‘a hundred’.

 

What are these numbers?

64 = Sixty-four.

73 = Seventy-three.

92 = Ninety-two.

48 = Forty-eight.

33 = Thirty-three. (That’s difficult…thirty-three.)

12 = Twelve.

16 = Sixteen.

81 = Eighty-one

67 = Sixty-seven.

8 = Eight

78 = Seventy-eight.

32 = Thirty-two.

59 = Fifty-nine.

(Big number… little number…simple.)

 

So now I can count to a hundred.

Remember ‘can’ is the modal verb and ‘count’ is the second verb.

If we know the numbers one to a hundred, then we can count forever.

This is a thousand and this is a million.

This number is a hundred and one.

You have to say ‘and’.

It’s not  ‘a hundred one’; it’s ‘a hundred AND one’.

Two hundred AND forty-six.

Three hundred AND sixty-eight.

We have to put ‘and’ after the hundred, or the thousand, or the million.

The System

 The system is very simple… each part of the sentence has a colour.

Here, I can count to a hundred.

This gives information about this.

So… I can count to 100.

I can also say: I can count slowly…one…two…three, or:

I can count quickly… one-two-three.

This is ‘how we do something’.

So this (orange…question mark), it tells us ‘how we do something’.

The Direct Object

 In Lesson Three, we learnt: I can spell Eleanor.

I can spell your name.

Here we have the purple card.

I can spell your name.

I can spell Eleanor.

This is ‘what’ we can spell.

This is the subject.

The subject is important.

I am the important person in this sentence; it is my sentence.

And this is what I can do.

I can spell your name.

I can see you.

I can hear music.

I can eat an apple.

The subject does something to the ‘direct object’.

If you understand this, then English is simple.

This / These

 In this lesson, we looked at ‘this’ and ‘these’.

‘This’ is for one person or one thing.

‘These’ is for two people or two things.

So this is my niece, Ella.

And these are my nieces, Hannah, Eleanor and Rebecca.

Remember ‘niece’ ends with an S-sound, so we cannot say …

we have to say niece-s.

The same goes for child…children.

This is my child, Ella.

These are my children, Hannah, Eleanor and Rebecca.

Then we have: This is my son, Alfie.

These are my sons, David and Alex.

Normally we just add -S to make something more than one,

but sometimes we have a word like child / children…

one child…two children

one person…two people.

(Look at that word – people!)

The Question Word ‘What?’

 What is my name?

My name is Sarah.

What is his name?

His name is Alex.

What is her name?

Her name is Ella.

What are their names?

Their names are Alfie and Ella.

We can also say: What are you called?

What am I called?

I am called Sarah.

What is he called?

He is called Alex.

What is she called?

She is called Sam.

What are they called?

They are called Alfie and Ella.

If someone is not male and not female, then we say: What ARE THEY called?

Or we say: What is their name?

The Question Word ‘What?’ (with The System)

Let’s take the sentence: My name is Sarah.

Here we have two subjects, because we have the verb ‘to be’.

(‘Is’ is from the verb ‘to be’.)

These are the same.

What is her name?

Sarah is her name.

Her name is Sarah.

This and this are the same.

She is called Sarah

This and this are the same.

What is she called?

Remember ‘called’ is not the verb; the verb is ‘to be’.

‘Is’ is from the verb ‘to be’.

‘Called’ goes further down the sentence.

The Question Word ‘How Old?’

How old am I?

I am forty-eight (48).

How old is he?

He is fifty-one (51).

How old is she?

She is 48.

How old are they?

They are ten (10) and eight (8).

Of course we can also say:

How old is your brother?

He is thirty-eight (38).

How old is your mum?

She is seventy-one (71).

How old are your cousins?

They are ten (10) and eight (8).

How old are your grandparents?

They are both seventy-five (75).

Again if we have someone who is not male and not female,

then we say: How old are THEY?

The Question Word ‘How Old?’ (with The System)

Let’s take the sentence: I am 48 (years old).

(Of course I say I am 48, because that is simple.)

The question is: How old am I?

So… I am 48 (Subject…Subject.)

How old I (Subject…Subject) – because here we have the verb ‘to be’

and only with the verb ‘to be’, we can have two Subjects.

So I say: How old am I?

How old are you?

How old is he?

How old is your brother?

(because ‘your brother’ is ‘he’.)

How old are his parents?

(because ‘his parents’ are ‘they’)…

How old are they?

That was the end of Lesson Four.

Each lesson takes about 15 minutes, so in 60 minutes, you have learnt

a LOT of English.

I hope you found this lesson useful and I look forward to seeing you again soon for Lesson Five.

Thanks for watching!

Bye for now!

English From The Beginning – Transcript Lesson Two

Hi! Welcome back to Cup of English.

This is English – From The Beginning. In Lesson One we learnt:

I am Sarah.

You are here.

He is British. She is 13. It is white. We are family, and They are girls.

We also learnt that the letters SH make…,

like BritiSH, but also SHe.

We also learnt that the letters TH make…,

like thirteen.

This is the verb ‘to be’ and ‘to be’ is a very important verb.

This symbol is for verbs.

This symbol is for subjects.

So… I am Sarah.

(I am the subject.)

You are here.

(You are the subject.)

Only with the verb ‘to be’, we can have two of these.

This gives information about this.

(But only with the verb ‘to be’.)

Cup of English starts slowly and builds up, so let’s move on to Lesson Two…

 

Lesson Two is all about My Family.

Now you know that I am bad at art.

This is me.

I am Sarah.

This is my husband.

My husband is called Alex.

We are talking about my family and the verb ‘to be (called)’.

 

So… I am Sarah.

I am called Sarah.

I can say ‘I am Sarah’ and I can say ‘I am called Sarah.’

This is my husband.

His brother is called David.

His mother (his mum) is called Carol.

His father (his dad) is called Alan.

We can say ‘mother’ and we can say ‘father’, but I say ‘mum’ and ‘dad’.

So his mum is called Carol and his dad is called Alan.

His brother is called David.

His wife is called Sam.

Her husband is called David.

Her son is called Alex.

Their children are called Alfie and Ella.

Their son is called Alfie.

Their daughter is called Ella.

Our children are called Hannah, Eleanor and Rebecca.

 

So that’s my husband’s side of the family.

On my side of the family, I have my brother and I have my mum.

(My dad is dead.)

My brother is called Christian.

My mum is called Margaret.

This side of the family is big.

My side of the family is small.

So on my list of seven subjects,

I have ‘my’, which comes from I.

I have ‘his’, which comes from he.

‘Her’ comes from she.

‘Our’ comes from we, and ‘their’ comes from they.

 

I am missing two things from my list.

I can say ‘I am called Sarah.’

I can also say ‘My name is Sarah.’

What is YOUR name?

So the subject ‘you’ becomes YOUR…

What is your name?

And the subject ‘it’ becomes ITS…

Its lid is here

 

So let’s go back through the people in my family….

We have my mum… my dad…

We have my brother…his sister… their son… our daughter…

my husband and his wife.

 

If we have the letters ER at the end of a word, we say:

brother…sister…daughter.

 

If we have the letters CH at the beginning of a word, we say …

Children.

‘Children’ is for two or more.

Our child is called Eleanor.

One child / two children.

 

Let me introduce some characters…

I…You…He…She…It…We…They

These characters are all for the ‘subject’.

(This is not a channel for children.)

These characters help me teach you about English grammar.

 

If I have the sentence: My sister is called Hannah.

My sister is SHE…

She is called Hannah.

She is called Hannah.

 

If I have the sentence: My sisters are called Eleanor and Hannah.

My sisters are THEY.

They are called Eleanor and Hannah.

This is really important.

‘My’ is from I, but ‘sister’ is a SHE

– it is one person.

‘Sisters’ is two people and then we say: THEY…

They are called Eleanor and Hannah.

Also our son…

‘Our’ comes from the subject we.

We is for two or more people, but ‘son’ is one person, so

Our son is called Alex,

whereas Our sons…

‘Sons’ is two or more…

Our sons… THEY.

Our sons are called Alex and David.

 

With the sentence ‘He is called Alex’,

we ask the question by turning around the subject and the verb.

The verb is ‘IS’.

We say ‘is called’, but the verb is ‘IS’.

So we switch them around, and we say: Is he called Alex?

With the sentence

They are called Eleanor, Hannah and Rebecca,

we switch around the subject and the verb, and we get the sentence:

Are they called…?

Are they called Hannah, Eleanor and Rebecca?

That is how we ask a question – with the verb ‘to be (called)’.

(It’s like the verb ‘to be’, but we just add the word ‘called’.)

 

With the sentence:

‘She is called Margaret’,

if we want to make it negative, we just add ‘not’…

She is not called Margaret.

(We just add ‘not’ after the verb.)

Remember the verb is ‘IS’, so ‘called’ goes further along.

‘IS’ is the important part…

She is not called Margaret.

 

She’s not called Margaret.

You’re not called Bill.

I’m not called Sally.

(These contractions are from Lesson One.)

Don’t worry about contractions!

Most important is:

She is not called Margaret.

(Contractions can come later.)

 

I do not like words like this.

However you need them for school.

These words are what we call ‘Possessive Adjectives’.

My…Your…His…Her…Its… Our…Their.

 

Lastly, ‘they are girls’ becomes they’re girls.

This is not the same thing as ‘their girls’.

‘Their girls are 13’ does not mean ‘they are girls’.

(A lot of people make that mistake.)

 

Thanks for watching!

See you again for Lesson Three!

Bye for now!

 

English from the Beginning Transcript Lesson Three

 

Transcript Lesson Three

Hi! Welcome back to: English From The Beginning!

This is Lesson Three.

In Lesson One, we looked at the verb ‘to be’.

In Lesson Two, we looked at the verb ‘to be called’.

We also looked at the words…

 

We also looked at Subjects.

If we have the subject ‘their son’, ‘their’ is not important;

‘son’ is important.

We know from ‘son’ that we are talking about a He-word…

Their son IS called Alfie.

If we have the subject ‘his daughters’, ‘his’ is not important; ‘daughters’ is important, because here we see that ‘daughters’ is more than one person, and then we have to use ‘they’…

His daughters are…

They are…

 

We also learned about questions.

If we want to make a question, we just turn around the subject and the verb.

So: My son is called David would become: Is my son called David?

‘Is’ is the verb, so ‘called’ goes further down the sentence.

 

We also learned about negatives… My son is not called David.

(We put ‘not’ behind the verb – with the verb ‘to be’ and ‘to be called’.)

 

And finally we can say: He is not called David

and we can say: He’s not called David.

(Of course we can also say: He’s called David.)

 

Let’s move on to Lesson Three…

 

This is me.

This is my husband, Alex.

This is his brother, David.

I can say: This is his brother, David, or

I can say: This is Alex’s brother.

This is David’s wife.

This is Carol’s son.

This is Alex’s dad.

(This is also David’s dad.)

This is my brother.

This is Christian’s mum.

He is Margaret’s son.

I am Margaret’s daughter.

 

(All I was doing was putting an apostrophe S after the person’s name.)

But don’t forget the apostrophe!

 

My husband’s brother is called David.

Alex’s brother is called David.

Our nephew’s parents are called David and Sam.

Remember with the verb ‘to be’,

(so ‘to be called’ is also ‘to be’),

we can have two yellow subjects.

David is information about this.

David and Sam are information about this.

(They are the same.)

David is Alex’s brother.

David is Rebecca’s uncle, and Christian is Rebecca’s uncle.

Christian is Hannah and Eleanor and Rebecca’s uncle.

Sam is our girls’ aunt.

Our girls are Sam’s nieces.

(We have one niece – two nieces.)

So Ella is my niece.

Alfie is my nephew.

Rebecca and Alfie are cousins.

Margaret is my mum.

Alan and Carol are not my parents, but they are my parents-in-law.

So David is my brother-in-law, and I am David’s sister-in-law.

 

Let’s go through the family members again…

We have: grandma, grandad (granddad) – or grandmother and grandfather.

We have uncle, aunt, nephew, niece.

So Alfie is my nephew and Ella is my niece, and our girls are David and Sam’s nieces.

(We just add -S… one niece – two nieces.)

And then we have ‘cousin’.

So Alfie and Ella are Hannah, Eleanor and Rebecca’s cousins.

And…Alex’s side of the family is my family-in-law, so David is my brother-in-law.

 

PRONUNCIATION

If we have the letters -LE at the end of a word, we say -le…uncle.

If we have the letters PH, we say ff…nephew.

And EW is ‘u’…Neph-ew.

We have the sound ff and we have the sound u…Nephew.

 

THE VERB CAN

In Lesson One we learned the verb ‘to be’.

In Lesson Two we learned the verb ‘to be called’.

Now we have to learn a new verb, and that verb is ‘can’.

Today we are going to learn the alphabet, because I can spell.

The following letters are a little bit tricky… G J H W Y.

 

I can spell… (various family members’ names)

 

With the verb ‘can’, ‘can’ is the verb, but we need another verb.

If we have two verbs, the first one is blue and the second one is green.

This ‘can’ is a help-verb.

 

GRAMMAR RULES

I do not like teaching you grammar, but you need it for school.

‘Can’ is a modal verb, or an auxiliary verb.

We have two verbs: ‘can’ and another verb.

We need two verbs.

We cannot say: I can…

We need another verb.

I can say ‘grandma’ or I can say ‘grandmother’.

 

With the verb ‘to be’, we say:

I am – you are – he is – she is – it is – we are – they are.

With the verb ‘can’, we say:

I can spell.

You can spell.

He can spell.

My husband can spell.

(All subjects use ‘can’.)

 

QUESTIONS

The verb ‘can’ is just like the verb ‘to be’…

When we ask a question, we just turn around the subject and the verb.

With the sentence ‘I can spell’… Can I spell?

With other subjects, we say:

Can he spell?

Can my mum spell?

 

NEGATIVES

If we want to make a sentence negative, then we just add ‘not’ behind the verb.

So: I cannot draw, and My pen cannot write!

 

CONTRACTIONS

In English, we can sometimes take two words and make them into one.

This is called a ‘contraction’.

I cannot draw becomes: I can’t draw.

She cannot cook becomes: She can’t cook.

But don’t worry about contractions!

The most important thing is: I can not draw.

Contractions can come later.

I hope you enjoyed today’s lesson.

Thank you for watching!

See you again for Lesson Four!

Bye for now!

 

English from the Beginning Transcript Lesson One

Lesson One – The Verb TO BE

 

Hi. I am Sarah. I am British.

This is Cup of English.

This is my system and

this is English from the beginning.

So this is now and

then we have lessons

and this is the end for Cup of English.

 

Then I say goodbye and you can carry on.

 

Cup of English is simple.

It is calm, slow, everyday English, but it builds up.

Then you will speak brilliant English.

 

So let’s make a start…

 

PRONUNCIATION

 

I am Sarah.

I am British.

This is Cup of English.

This is my system.

This is English from the beginning.

I am Sarah. I am British.

Here we have the letters SH…

 

This is Cup of English.

Here we have the letters TH.

We have to put our tongue between our teeth and say ‘this’…

 

This…The… That… These… There

 

(This…The… That… These… There)

 

This is Cup of English and

this is my system and

this is English from the beginning.

 

SUBJECTS AND VERBS

 

This is me!

I am bad at art!

 

I am bad at art!

 

This is me!

This is my husband.

My husband is British.

 

(My husband is British.)

 

So I AM British

but my husband IS British.

He is British.

Our children are girls.

We have Hannah, Eleanor and Rebecca.

 

My daughter is 13.

Hannah is 13.

She is 13.

 

(My daughter is 13.

Hannah is 13.

She is 13.)

 

So here I have the person…

I or My husband or He.

My daughter, Hannah or She.

 

Here I have the verb… I am….is…is

 

This is the verb, and this is more information about this person.

 

So I am Sarah.

Sarah is me.

We are the same; we are equal.

This is information about me.

This is information about my husband.

This is information about my daughter.

Yellow is for the person – the subject.

I have a pen.

My pen is white…My pen is the subject.

I am Sarah… I am the subject.

My husband is British…

My husband is the subject and

this gives more information about the subject.

So this and this… these are the same.

So let’s go through them again…

I am Sarah.

My husband is British.

He is British.

Hannah is 13.

She is 13.

My pen is white.

It is white.

He and she are people.

They are people.

My pen is not a person; my pen is a thing.

 

These subjects are one person or one thing.

I am one person.

My husband is one person.

My pen is one thing.

These subjects are one person or thing.

We need one more person and that is you!

 

You are here.

You are here with me.

You are here.

So I am… He is…She is… It is and You are

Our children are girls.

They are girls.

My husband, our three girls and I – we are a family.

We are a family.

They are girls.

 

So these subjects are for one person or thing,

and these subjects are for two or more people or things.

And that is how we make our subjects and our verbs for the verb ‘to be’.

This is the verb ‘to be’ and it is a very important verb.

You have to know the verb ‘to be’.

 

QUESTIONS

 

If I say ‘I am British’, that is a fact; it is true.

If I say ‘You are here’, that is a fact.

(You are with me here.)

If I say ‘My husband is British’, that is fact.

If I say ‘Hannah is 13’, that is fact.

Now if I want to make a question with the verb ‘to be’,

All I have to do is turn these around.

So I am becomes Am I?

You are becomes Are you?

He is becomes Is he? Or:

Is my husband British?

Is Hannah 13?

Is the pen white?

Are we a family?

Are the children girls?

That is how we make a question – with the verb ‘to be’.

We just turn around the subject and the verb.

We turn them round… Easy!

 

NEGATIVES

 

If we say ‘I am’, this is positive.

You are is positive.

If we want to make something negative then we say not…

I am NOT a man. (I am a woman.)

You are not on the beach.

(You are here with me.)

My husband is not at work.

Hannah is not 14.

My pen is not blue.

We are not in the garden, and

The children are not boys.

We just put ‘not’ after the verb – with the verb ‘to be’.

(That is very important.)

 

CONTRACTIONS

 

In English if we have the words ‘I am’, we can put them together to make I’m…

I am British – I’m British.

I am Sarah – I’m Sarah.

You are here – You’re here.

Here we take off the vowel and we add an apostrophe…

You’re… He’s… She’s… It’s… We’re…They’re

I’m

You’re

He’s… My husband’s…

My husband is British.

My husband’s British.

She’s… She’s 13.

Hannah is 13 – Hannah’s 13.

It’s… It is white – It’s white.

The pen’s white.  (The pen is white.)

The pen’s white.

We’re… We’re a family.

They’re…They’re girls.

But remember…

You take away the vowel and you add an apostrophe.

Don’t forget!

That was the end of Lesson One – on the verb ‘to be’.

I am happy.

Are you happy?

English is not easy, but

My system is very helpful, and It is FREE!

Thank you so much for watching!

See you again – for Lesson Two.

Bye for now!

 

Transcript: Past Tense in 20 Minutes

Hi! 

My students really struggle with when to use ‘I did’ and when to use ‘I have done’.

Now, ‘I did’ is the past simple.

We use the past simple when we are talking about something that we finished in the past.

Importantly it has a specific time attached to it, like: “I went into town yesterday.”

‘Yesterday’ is the time; it is a specific time.

Now I am going to talk about these times as time zones, because this will really help with this film, and hopefully by the end of this film, you will know exactly when to say ‘I did’ and when to say ‘I have done’.

When my students come to me with a question about the present perfect, I say, “What is the present perfect?”

They say, “it started in the past and it still applies now.”

But what does that actually mean?

Well, let’s look at the time zone and let’s give us an example…

If I say, “I have seen my friends today”,

I’m talking about today; the time zone is ‘today’.

I am still in ‘today’, so I can say, “I have seen my friends today”, because I am still in that time zone.

However if I talk about ‘this morning’ and now I am in ‘this afternoon’, ‘this morning’ has gone.

So then I would say: “I saw my friends this morning.”

Then we use past simple, because we’re talking about a time zone that has gone.

So if I talk about ‘today’, I am still in the time zone ‘today’.

Then I say: “I have seen” 

If I talk about ‘this morning’ and ‘this morning’ has gone, then I say: “I saw”

If we take the example “I have done my homework this week”, then we are still in ‘this week’.

If I say “On Monday I did my homework”, then ‘Monday’ has already gone.

That’s why I use the past simple…

“I did my homework on Monday.”

(Or “On Monday I did my homework”)

But if we are talking about ‘this week’ – if you say ‘this week’, then you are talking about the time zone that we are still in.

Then we have to use the present perfect… I have done “I have done my homework this week.”

It doesn’t matter when I did my homework; I have done my homework – this week.

Let’s look at the example “My friend has finished his project.”

Here we do not have a time zone in the sentence, so how do we know whether we are going to use the past simple or the present perfect?

So let’s find out what the time zone is…

My friend has finished his project.

The teacher set a project and – up until now – my friend has finished it, so the time zone is: ‘from the teacher setting the project up until now’, and we are still in that time zone.

That is why we use the present perfect.

If I say “My friend did not finish his homework last week”, ‘last week’ has gone – the time zone of ‘last week’ has gone.

That is why we say: “My friend did not finish his homework last week.”

(Or “Last week my friend did not finish his homework.”)

We can put the time either at the end or at the front of the sentence.

With the example “I have watched this film”, what is the time zone?

The time zone is ‘in my lifetime’.

So, in my whole life – up until now – I have watched this film.

I am not giving you any information about when I watched that film.

(It doesn’t matter!)

I have watched this film in my lifetime – up until now, so this is why I think my students say “I started it in the past and it still applies now.”

Now it gets a little bit trickier, because it always does, of course…

Let’s go back to the past simple…

Let’s go back to ‘I did’…

When I say, “I did my homework at school”, where’s my time?

The time is ‘when I was at school’, so although ‘at school’ is actually a ‘place’, we are talking about ‘the time that I was at school’.

If I am talking to one of my daughters and I say “Did you hand in your project?”

where’s the time zone?

Well… my daughter knows and I know that she has to hand in a project, and so we both know about the time.

We know she had to hand in when she was in a specific lesson, so even though the time is not in a sentence, she knows and I know what the time is.

I do not need to say “Did you hand in your project during your English lesson?” or “Did you hand in your project today at school?” or “Did you hand in your project when you saw your teacher?”

She knows and I know what we are talking about, and that time zone has gone.

So with the past simple, with words like “I did”, “I went”, “I saw”, “I watched”, we use these when we are talking about a time zone that has finished.

When we say ‘I have seen’, “I have watched”, “I have done”,  “I have gone”, then we are talking about time zone that we are still in.

HOW DO WE FORM THE PAST SIMPLE?

With irregular verbs, we look at the verb table and we use the word in the second row, and we use this word for all subjects.

When we have a regular verb, then we just add -ed to the end of the verb.

If the verb already ends in E, we don’t add an extra e; then we just add a D.

If the verb ends with a Y and the y is the last sound, like with ’empty’ or ‘carry’ or ‘tidy’, – but not with ‘play’, then we change the Y to an i and add ED.

HOW DO WE FORM THE PRESENT PERFECT?

We take the correct part of the verb ‘have’ and we add the past participle.

Now the past participle is the word in the third row of verb tables, if we are talking about an irregular verb.

With regular verbs, we are actually just using the past simple form as our past

participle.

Remember it is: I have   you have    we have    they have

but he / she / it has.

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

When we have finished something in the past, and we use words like ‘always’ or ‘sometimes’ or ‘regularly’ or ‘usually’, we have to use the present perfect, because those words – those ‘adverbs of frequency’ – which show how frequently – how often – we do something, they show that we have done something more than once.

When we are talking about the past simple, we say: “I went into town yesterday.”

We went once.

Whereas if we say: “I have always gone into town with my friends.”

– that means we have done something more than once.

If we have an ‘adverb of frequency’ in our sentence, and we are talking about the past, then we have to use the present perfect.

Often… I have often been to London – or I have been to London often.

(Adverbs of frequency can usually go in more than one place in a sentence.)

Sometimes…

They have sometimes slept at my house – or

Sometimes they have slept at my house.

Frequently…

I have frequently had lunch with my friends.

So just to be clear, if we have a sentence like “I saw that band last summer”, ‘last summer’ has finished.

I saw the band once, so therefore I can say ‘I saw’ and not ‘I have seen’, because ‘last summer’ is a time zone that has finished.

This brings me to an issue…

How do I talk about ‘when I was younger’, because ‘when I was younger’ is a time zone that has finished. 

However maybe I did something several times.

Well then I use the structure ‘I used to’.

So when I was younger, I used to play the piano.

When I was younger, I used to live in England.

When I was younger, I used to have an apartment.

When I was younger, I used to be very bad at history.

CAN I ASK A QUESTION IN THE PRESENT PERFECT AND ANSWER IN THE PAST SIMPLE?

If I ask you the question “What have you done today?”

The time zone is ‘today’ and we are still in today, so you can say:

I have been to school.

I have seen my friends.

I have had lunch with my mum.

I have finished my homework, and 

I have walked the dog.

You have not given me any information about when you did things; you have just said ‘I have done these things’ – up until now.

However you could also say:

I went to school at half past eight.

Then I saw my friends during the break.

After school I had lunch with my

mum.

Then I finished my homework and

after my homework, I walked the dog.

Here you are giving me all different time zones, and these time zones have all finished.

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIGNAL WORDS

There are seven ‘signal words’ that show us that we can use the present perfect.

These signal words are what I like to call my JESYFAN words, which are the initials of the seven words.

Let’s take these words one at a time…

Just… I have just finished my homework.

Now if I say: “I have just finished my homework”, ‘just’ could be one minute ago, or it could be two hours ago.

It is not a specific time, so we say: “I have just finished my homework.”

Now if I say to you: “You do not look very nice today!”

YUou could say to me: “What did you just say?”

That ‘just’ is a specific time, because I just said to you: “You do not look very nice today!”

(So that was about a minute ago), and you say to me: “What did you just say?”

So that ‘just’… you know the time that you’re talking about and I know the time that I’m talking about, and so it’s a specific time.

If ‘just’ is not specific, weuse the present perfect… 

“I have just finished my homework.”

But if we know when ‘just’ was, then we can use the past simple…

“What did you just say?”

I just said that you didn’t look very nice today.

(Let’s move on…)

Ever… We can only use the word ‘ever’ in a question.

I cannot say: “I have ever been to Spain.”

But I can say: “Have you ever been to Spain?”

So in a question, we use the word ‘ever’…

“Have you ever…” (in the timezone ‘in your lifetime – up until now’)…

“Have you ever been to Spain?”

Since… Now ‘since’ is also a little bit tricky, because we can say: “I have lived in this house since 2009.”

We can also say: “I have been living in this house since 2009.”

‘I have lived’ is the present perfect.

‘I have been living’ is the present perfect continuous, because I continue to live in this house.

So you can use either, but I would say: “I have been living in this house since 2009”, if I wanted people to know that I am still living here.

WHY CAN I NOT SAY: “I HAVE BEEN KNOWING YOU FOR 10 YEARS?”

(Or “I have been knowing you SINCE last year.”)

There are about 30 different verbs that we cannot add -ing onto, like ‘know’…

I know you or I do not know you.

We cannot say: “I am knowing you.”

So therefore we cannot say: “I have been knowing you.”

With these verbs we can only use the present perfect, so we can only say: “I have known you since you were a baby.”

“I have liked this band since I first heard their music.”

“I have believed in you since I first met you.”

(Just one last thing about ‘since’…)

I can say: “I have lived here since 2009″, or I can say: I have lived here since I left school”, or “…since I moved to the Netherlands.”

The part of a sentence – the phrase that ‘since’ is in – we use the past simple in there… “…since I left school”.

(We do not say: “Since I have left school”, because we are talking about ‘since the time that I left school’ or ‘since the time that I moved to the Netherlands’.

Yet… I can only use ‘yet’ in a question or in a negative sentence, so I can say: “Have you finished your dinner yet?”

Or I can say: “I have not finished my dinner yet.”

I cannot say: “I have finished my dinner yet.”

Then I would say: “I have already finished my dinner.”

– or something like that.

But I cannot say: “I have finished my dinner yet.”

‘Yet’ is easy; we can only use the present perfect if we have ‘yet’ in the sentence.

For… ‘For’ is similar to ‘since’…

I can either say: “I have lived in this house for ten years.”

Or: “I have been living in this house for ten years.”

We can either use the present perfect or we can use the present perfect continuous, because I continue to live in this house.

Already… I can only use ‘already’ in a positive sentence.

I cannot use it in a negative sentence.

I can say: “I have already cleaned my teeth.”

I cannot say: “I have not already cleaned my teeth.”

(Then I would say: “I have not cleaned my teeth yet.”)

I can use ‘already’ in a question, but only if I am quite surprised about the situation.

So if I say: “Have you already finished your homework?”

“Have you finished your homework already?”

“Really?”

That is how I use ‘already’ in a question.

Never… I can only use ‘never’ in a negative sentence, obviously…

I have never been to France.

I have never watched this film.

I can use it in a question, but only if – once again – I am dubious.

So if I say: “Have you never overslept?”

That means I cannot believe that somebody has never overslept – that they have never stayed in bed for too long.

I hope this film has cleared up any questions that you had about when to use the past simple and when to use the present perfect.

All the information from today’s film is in the Description Section below, and there are also links to exercises that will help you with your English.

If you still have questions, or if you would like to ask me about

anything to do with English, please let me know in the Comment Section.

Thank you so much for watching!

Bye for now!

My Daughter is Leaving Me

Hi!

Today I have sad news;

My oldest daughter is leaving me.

Actually I’m not at all sad, because

She’s going to university,

And I am thrilled that

She has this amazing opportunity.

She will be studying in a city about an hour and a half away from our house.

She will be studying Liberal Arts and Science,

which sounds like a really interesting course.

We are taking her on Sunday, together with all her things, and

Her introduction week starts on Monday.

Her actual course begins the following Monday.

We will arrive at about eleven o’clock, and then

we are going to clean her apartment.

After that she is going to unpack her things, and then

she is going to make her room her own, and  

we are going to leave her to it.

It’s an amazing opportunity for her.

However it is a massive step.

So, for the first few weeks, she is going to come home at the weekends.

After that we will see.

I don’t know whether she will come home.

I hope that she will enjoy herself so much that 

she doesn’t need to come home.

But if she comes home, she will be welcome.

She is so lucky!

She will have an apartment right in the heart of the centre.

And her apartment will be in a block, together with all of the other first years.

There will be about 220 students in the first year, so

I hope that she will find some people that she clicks with.

Of course I am going to miss her;

She’s my oldest daughter.

I have known her for 19 years.

But this is the right thing to do.

She has to move on to the next step in her life.

And she is going to have a fabulous time.

And, even though I’m going to miss her,

It works out well, because now

I have a permanent filming set in her bedroom. Da dah!

Of course I will transform her bedroom back into a bedroom every time 

she comes home.

Have a fabulous time, Darling!  Good luck! 

I will miss you, but you will have a ball!

This film was all about the future tense.

I find ‘the future tense’ a really tricky tense to teach, because

there are four or five ways of talking about the future.

(The Present Continuous)

This is when we say: I am seeing, You are drinking, He is watching…,

But you need a time with it.

So when I said, ‘We are taking her to the apartment on Sunday.’

This is the Present Continuous…

We are taking her.

And we use this when we have agreed something;

it is in the diary.

We have arranged that we are taking her on Sunday.

If we do not have a time with the Present Continuous,

Then we are talking about what we are doing NOW.

So if I say, ‘I am talking to you’, then I mean:

I am talking to you NOW.

Whereas if I say, ‘We are taking her on Sunday’,

Then I am talking about the future.

(Talking about a Plan)

To express a plan, we say: I am going or You are going or He / She / It is going,

or We are going or They are going to VERB…

I am going to see.

You are going to watch.

He is going to learn.

I am going to visit my daughter sometime between now and Christmas.

(The Future – The Modal Verb Will)

If we are talking about the future, and 

it is not a ‘plan’; 

it is just ‘the future’,

Then we use the word ‘will’.

So if I say, “My daughter has an apartment.”

That means that she has it NOW.

It is a fact that my daughter has an apartment, but

she doesn’t have an apartment NOW, but

she will have an apartment – from Sunday.

So if I take a fact from now, like:

‘She has an apartment in the middle of the city.’ and 

I put it into the future then I say,

“She will have an apartment in the middle of the city.”

(The Future Continuous)
If I say, ‘She is studying Liberal Arts and Science.’

That means that she is studying it NOW, but

I don’t mean that because she is not studying it NOW, but 

she will be studying it – from the beginning of the course.

(Other Uses for ‘Will’)

We can also use the word ‘will’ if 

we have the word ‘if’ at the beginning of the sentence…

If my daughter comes home next weekend, 

she will be very welcome.

If I see her next weekend, 

I will give her a big cuddle.

I can also say, ‘When I see her next weekend, I will give her a big cuddle.’

We also use the word ‘will’ when 

we have the words ‘I think’ or ‘I hope’ or ‘I doubt’ at the beginning of the sentence…

I think she will really enjoy herself.

I hope she will meet some really good friends.

I doubt that she will come home every weekend.

(The Present Simple)

If something is on a timetable, like

The university has a timetable and

The first day of my daughter’s course is a week on Monday.

The course starts a week on Monday.

The introduction week starts this Monday.

It is on the timetable, so 

Even though it is in the future,

We use the Present Simple.

Just like if there is a train timetable, we say,

‘My train leaves at eight o’clock in the morning.’

My plane departs…

My bus arrives – at a certain time.

If it is on a timetable, then we use the Present Simple…

My daughter’s course starts a week on Monday.

The introduction week begins this Monday.


And that is how we express the future.

I hope you’ve found this lesson useful.

Thanks for watching!

Bye for now!